Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Biological Predisposition to Criminal Behavior. It needs to be at least 1250 words. The idea that genes could be responsible for criminal behavior was conceived by Joseph Gall, a German physician, and neuroanatomist through his theory of phrenology. The theory proposed that brain functions in distinct organs in the brain. These organs have been categorized into three regions responsible for controlling the moral, intellectual and lower faculties and can be identified by the bumps on somebody’s head. If any bump was larger than the standard size, then that personality characteristic was more pronounced than the rest. Phrenologists believed that such abnormalities could be cured through the development of moral and intellectual faculties. The discipline later declined but it had already set the ground for further exploration.
This debate was discussed through further investigation by other criminologists such as Cesare Lombroso through his popular theory of evolutionary atavism in 1867. He believed there were three categories of criminal behavior: Pseudocriminals- those who kill for self-defense or at the spur of the moment. Habitual criminals- criminals because of their poor education as well as upbringing. and Criminaloids- those who are naturally predisposed to commit a crime but which could only be revealed under certain circumstances. Richard Dugdale conducted a genealogical study in 1877 of the Jukes family, which revealed that there were high incidences of criminality dating back 200 years. In 1913, Henry Goddard studied the Kallikak family, which showed that feeblemindedness was hereditary and increased chances of criminality.
Johannes Lange, through his 1931 work Crime and Destiny moved the debate from previous studies filled with theoretical and methodological flaws. .  .
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